What is hemoglobin?

Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Hemoglobin consists of four protein molecules (globulin chains) that are connected. 
The normal adult hemoglobin (HBG) molecule contains two alpha-globulin chains and two beta globulin chains. In fetuses and infants, there are only a few beta-chains and the hemoglobin molecule made of two alpha chains and two gamma chains. As the baby grows, gradually gamma chains replaced by beta-chains.

Each globulin chain contains an important central structure called the heme molecule. 
Embedded within the heme molecule is iron that oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in the blood. The iron in hemoglobin is responsible for the red color of blood.

The hemoglobin also plays an important role in maintaining the shape of red blood cells. 
Abnormal hemoglobin structure can disrupt the shape of red blood cells and interfere with the function and flow through the arteries.

How is hemoglobin measured?

Hemoglobin is usually measured as a part of the complete blood count (CBC) of a blood sample.

Several methods exist for measuring hemoglobin, most of which currently automatic machine designed for different tests to be carried out on blood taken.Inside the machine, the red blood cells are broken down hemoglobin into a solution to get. 
The free hemoglobin is exposed to a chemical with cyanide that is tightly bound to the hemoglobin molecule to form cyanmethemoglobin. By shining a light through the solution and measuring how much light is absorbed (specifically at a wavelength of 540 nanometers), the amount of hemoglobin can be determined.

What is normal hemoglobin values?

The hemoglobin level is expressed as the amount of hemoglobin in grams (GM) per deciliter (dl) of the whole blood, a deciliter 100 milliliters.

The normal ranges for hemoglobin depend on the age and begins in adolescence, the sex of the person. 
The normal ranges are:

Newborns: 17-22 gm / dl

One (1) week of age: 15-20 gm / dl

One (1) month of age: 11-15gm/dl

Children: 11-13 gm / dl

Adult males: 14-18 gm / dl

Adult women: 12-16 gm / dl

Men after middle age: 12.4 to 14.9 gm / dl

Women of the Middle age: 11.7 to 13.8 gm / dl
All these values ​​can vary slightly between laboratories. 
Some laboratories do not distinguish between adult and "after middle age" hemoglobin values.

What does a low hemoglobin level?

A low hemoglobin is referred to as anemia. 
There are many reasons for anemia.

Some of the more common causes are:

loss of blood (traumatic injury, surgery, bleeding colon cancer or ulcer)

nutritional deficiencies (iron and vitamin B12, folate)

bone marrow problems (replacement of bone marrow by cancer,

suppression by chemotherapy drugs,

renal failure), and

abnormal hemoglobin (sickle cell anemia).

What does a high level of hemoglobin?

Higher than normal hemoglobin levels seen in people at high altitudes and in people smoking. Dehydration produces a falsely high hemoglobin whichdisappears when proper fluid balance restoration.

Some other infrequent causes are:

advanced lung disease (eg, emphysema),

certain crops,

a disorder of the bone marrow known as polycythemia rubra vera, and

abuse of the drug erythropoietin (Epogen) by athletes for blood doping purposes.

What is sickle cell disease?

Sickle cell disease is a genetic condition that the quality of hemoglobin isdefective. This condition can cause abnormal hemoglobin which in turn can resultin abnormally shaped (sickled) red blood cells. These abnormal red blood cellscan not easily by a small blood vessels, and so were the organs of adequateoxygen deprived.

Sickle cells have a shorter life span than normal red blood cells (10-20 dayscompared to 120 days). This rapid rotation can result in insufficient time for the red blood cells to replace and can lead to anemia.

In order for a person who has sickle cell anemia a defective human hemoglobingenes from each parent inherited. If only one gene from one parent inherited, then the conditions are much lighter and it is referred to as sickle cell trait.

What is thalassemia?

Thalassemia refers to a group of inherited with quantitative hemoglobin deficit. Thebody's failure to globulin molecules, leading to compensatory mechanism for otherless compatible globulin molecules to make. The severity of these conditionsdepends on the type of defective globulin chain and the seriousness of theproduction. Mild disease may be just as mild anemia, and severe deficiency maynot be compatible with life.